**Standard Deviation**

The statistical measurement of dispersion about an average, which depicts how widely a stock or portfolio's returns varied over a certain period of time. Investors use the standard deviation of historical performance to try to predict the range of returns that is most likely for a given investment. When a stock or portfolio has a high standard deviation, the predicted range of performance is wide, implying greater volatility.

**Downside Deviation**

This measures only deviations below a specified benchmark. It is also the denominator for the Sortino Ratio.

**Alpha**

A measure of the difference between a portfolio’s actual returns and its expected performance, given its level of risk as measured by beta. A positive Alpha figure indicates the portfolio has performed better than its beta would predict. In contrast, a negative Alpha indicates the portfolio has under performed, given the expectations established by beta.

**Beta**

Beta is a measure of a portfolio's sensitivity to market movements. The beta of the market is 1.00 by definition. Morningstar calculates beta by comparing a portfolio's excess return over T-bills to the benchmark's excess return over T-bills, so a beta of 1.10 shows that the portfolio has performed 10% better than its benchmark in up markets and 10% worse in down markets, assuming all other factors remain constant. Conversely, a beta of 0.85 indicates that the portfolio's excess return is expected to perform 15% worse than the benchmark’s excess return during up markets and 15% better during down markets.

**R2 (R-Squared)**

Reflects the percentage of a portfolio's movements that can be explained by movements in its benchmark.

**Sharpe Ratio**

A risk-adjusted measure developed by Nobel Laureate William Sharpe. It is calculated by using standard deviation and excess return to determine reward per unit of risk. The higher the Sharpe Ratio, the better the portfolio’s historical risk-adjusted performance. The Sharpe Ratio can be used to compare two portfolios directly with regard to how much excess return each portfolio achieved for a certain level of risk. Morningstar first calculates a monthly Sharpe Ratio and then annualizes it to put the number in a more useful one-year context.

**Tracking Error**

Tracking error is a measure of the volatility of excess returns relative to a benchmark.

**Upside Capture Ratio**

Upside Capture Ratio measures a manager's performance in up markets relative to the market (benchmark) itself. It is calculated by taking the security’s upside capture return and dividing it by the benchmark’s upside capture return.

**Downside Capture Ratio**

Downside Capture Ratio measures manager's performance in down markets. A down-market is defined as those periods (months or quarters) in which market return is less than 0. In essence, it tells you what percentage of the downmarket

was captured by the manager. For example, if the ratio is 110%, the manager has captured 110% of the down-market and therefore underperformed the market on the downside.

**Information Ratio**

Information ratio is a risk-adjusted performance measure. The information ratio is a special version of the Sharpe Ratio in that the benchmark doesn't have to be the risk-free rate. The Israelson method is an adjustment of the Information Ratio to take into account the

inconsistency of the IR when excess returns are negative.

**Sortino Ratio**

The Sortino Ratio is similar to Sharpe Ratio except it uses downside risk (Downside Deviation) in the denominator. It was developed in early 1980's by Frank Sortino. Since upside variability is not necessarily a bad thing, Sortino ratio is sometimes more preferable than Sharpe ratio